Многоножковые - Polypodiales 5/24/09—7/2/22
The order Polypodiales encompasses the major lineages of polypod ferns, which comprise more than 80% of today's fern species. They are found in many parts of the world including tropical, semitropical and temperate areas.
Polypodiales are unique in bearing sporangia with a vertical annulus interrupted by the stalk and stomium. These sporangial characters were used by Johann Jakob Bernhardi to define a group of ferns he called the "Cathetogyratae"; the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group has suggested reviving this name as the informal term cathetogyrates, to replace the ambiguously circumscribed term "polypods" when referring to the Polypodiales. The sporangia are born on stalks 1–3 cells thick and are often long-stalked. (In contrast, the Hymenophyllales have a stalk composed of four rows of cells.) The sporangia do not reach maturity simultaneously. Many groups in the order lack indusia, but when present, they are attached either along the edge of the indusium or in its center.
Gametophytes are green, usually heart-shaped, and grow at the surface (rather than underground, as in Ophioglossales).
Historically, the ferns have undergone many different classifications (see review by Christenhusz and Chase, 2014). Smith et al. (2006) carried out the first higher-level pteridophyte classification published in the molecular phylogenetic era. Smith referred to the ferns as monilophytes, dividing them into four groups. The vast majority of ferns were placed in the Polypodiopsida, and that arrangement has persisted through all subsequent systems, despite some changes in nomenclature. Polypodiopsida is used in the strict sense (sensu stricto) by Smith et al. since it later came to be applied to all ferns (sensu lato), while this large group became known as Polypodiidae. This group is also informally known as the leptosporangiate ferns, while the remaining three groups (subclasses) ar referred to as eusporangiate ferns. The Polypodiidae have been divided into seven orders since that study, the largest of which is Polypodiales.