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Многоножковые - Polypodiales 5/24/09—7/2/22

The order Polypodiales encompasses the major lineages of polypod ferns, which comprise more than 80% of today's fern species. They are found in many parts of the world including tropical, semitropical and temperate areas. Polypodiales are unique in bearing sporangia with a vertical annulus interrupted by the stalk and stomium. These sporangial characters were used by Johann Jakob Bernhardi to define a group of ferns he called the "Cathetogyratae"; the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group has suggested reviving this name as the informal term cathetogyrates, to replace the ambiguously circumscribed term "polypods" when referring to the Polypodiales. The sporangia are born on stalks 1–3 cells thick and are often long-stalked. (In contrast, the Hymenophyllales have a stalk composed of four rows of cells.) The sporangia do not reach maturity simultaneously. Many groups in the order lack indusia, but when present, they are attached either along the edge of the indusium or in its center. Gametophytes are green, usually heart-shaped, and grow at the surface (rather than underground, as in Ophioglossales). Historically, the ferns have undergone many different classifications (see review by Christenhusz and Chase, 2014). Smith et al. (2006) carried out the first higher-level pteridophyte classification published in the molecular phylogenetic era. Smith referred to the ferns as monilophytes, dividing them into four groups. The vast majority of ferns were placed in the Polypodiopsida, and that arrangement has persisted through all subsequent systems, despite some changes in nomenclature. Polypodiopsida is used in the strict sense (sensu stricto) by Smith et al. since it later came to be applied to all ferns (sensu lato), while this large group became known as Polypodiidae. This group is also informally known as the leptosporangiate ferns, while the remaining three groups (subclasses) ar referred to as eusporangiate ferns. The Polypodiidae have been divided into seven orders since that study, the largest of which is Polypodiales.
Деннштедтиевые - Dennstaedtiaceae Dennstaedtiaceae is one of fifteen families in the order Polypodiales, the most derived families within monilophytes...

Деннштедтиевые - Dennstaedtiaceae

Dennstaedtiaceae is one of fifteen families in the order Polypodiales, the most derived families within monilophytes (ferns). It comprises 10 genera with ca 240…

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Дербянковые - Blechnaceae

Дербянковые - Blechnaceae

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Костенцовые - Aspleniaceae The Aspleniaceae (spleenworts) is a family of ferns, included in the order Polypodiales or in some classifications as...

Костенцовые - Aspleniaceae

The Aspleniaceae (spleenworts) is a family of ferns, included in the order Polypodiales or in some classifications as the only family in the order…

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Кочедыжниковые - Athyriaceae The Athyriaceae (ladyferns and allies) are a family of terrestrial ferns in the order Polypodiales. In the Pteridophyte...

Кочедыжниковые - Athyriaceae

The Athyriaceae (ladyferns and allies) are a family of terrestrial ferns in the order Polypodiales. In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016…

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Многоножковые - Polypodiaceae Polypodiaceae is a family of polypod ferns, which includes more than 60 genera divided into several tribes and...

Многоножковые - Polypodiaceae

Polypodiaceae is a family of polypod ferns, which includes more than 60 genera divided into several tribes and containing around 1,000 species. Nearly all are…

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Нефролепиевые - Nephrolepidaceae Nephrolepis is a genus of about 30 species of ferns in the family Nephrolepidaceae (or Dryopteridaceae in some...

Нефролепиевые - Nephrolepidaceae

Nephrolepis is a genus of about 30 species of ferns in the family Nephrolepidaceae (or Dryopteridaceae in some classifications).
Commonly referred to as the…

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Оноклеевые - Onocleaceae Onocleaceae is a small family of terrestrial ferns in the order Polypodiales. It is placed in the suborder Aspleniineae...

Оноклеевые - Onocleaceae

Onocleaceae is a small family of terrestrial ferns in the order Polypodiales. It is placed in the suborder Aspleniineae in the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group…

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Пузырниковые - Cystopteridaceae Cystopteridaceae is a family of ferns in the order Polypodiales. In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of...

Пузырниковые - Cystopteridaceae

Cystopteridaceae is a family of ferns in the order Polypodiales. In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I), the family is placed in the…

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Разнолистниковые - Pteridaceae Pteridaceae is a family of ferns in the order Polypodiales., including some 1150 known species in ca 45 genera...

Разнолистниковые - Pteridaceae

Pteridaceae is a family of ferns in the order Polypodiales., including some 1150 known species in ca 45 genera (depending on taxonomic opinions), divided over…

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Телиптерисовые - Thelypteridaceae Thelypteridaceae is a family of about 900 species of ferns in the eupolypods II clade of the order Polypodiales, in the...

Телиптерисовые - Thelypteridaceae

Thelypteridaceae is a family of about 900 species of ferns in the eupolypods II clade of the order Polypodiales, in the class Polypodiopsida.
The ferns are…

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Щитовниковые - Dryopteridaceae The Dryopteridaceae are a family of leptosporangiate ferns in the order Polypodiales. They are known colloquially as the...

Щитовниковые - Dryopteridaceae

The Dryopteridaceae are a family of leptosporangiate ferns in the order Polypodiales. They are known colloquially as the wood ferns. They comprise about 1700…

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