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Паслёновые (Solanaceae) 9/13/08—6/22/19

The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants. The family ranges from annual and perennial herbs to vines, lianas, epiphytes, shrubs, and trees, and includes a number of important agricultural crops, medicinal plants, spices, weeds, and ornamentals. Many members of the family contain potent alkaloids, and some are highly toxic, but many, including tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, bell/chili peppers, and tobacco are widely used. The family belongs to the order Solanales, in the asterid group and class Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons). The Solanaceae consists of about 98 genera and some 2,700 species, with a great diversity of habitats, morphology and ecology.

The name Solanaceae derives from the genus Solanum, "the nightshade plant". The etymology of the Latin word is unclear. The name may come from a perceived resemblance of certain solanaceous flowers to the sun and its rays. At least one species of Solanum is known as the "sunberry". Alternatively, the name could originate from the Latin verb solari, meaning "to soothe", presumably referring to the soothing pharmacological properties of some of the psychoactive species of the family.

The family has a worldwide distribution, being present on all continents except Antarctica. The greatest diversity in species is found in South America and Central America. In 2017, scientists reported on their discovery and analysis of a fossil tomatillo found in the Patagonian region of Argentina, dated to 52 million years B.P. The finding has pushed back the earliest appearance of the Solanaceae plant family. As tomatillos likely developed later than other nightshades, this may mean that the Solanaceae may have first developed during the Mesozoic Era.

The Solanaceae include a number of commonly collected or cultivated species. The most economically important genus of the family is Solanum, which contains the potato (S. tuberosum, in fact, another common name of the family is the "potato family"), the tomato (S. lycopersicum), and the eggplant or aubergine (S. melongena). Another important genus, Capsicum, produces both chili peppers and bell peppers.

The genus Physalis produces the so-called groundcherries, as well as the tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica), the Cape gooseberry and the Chinese lantern. The genus Lycium contains the boxthorns and the wolfberry Lycium barbarum. Nicotiana contains, among other species, tobacco. Some other important members of Solanaceae include a number of ornamental plants such as Petunia, Browallia, and Lycianthes, and sources of psychoactive alkaloids, Datura, Mandragora (mandrake), and Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade). Certain species are widely known for their medicinal uses, their psychotropic effects, or for being poisonous.

Most of the economically important genera are contained in the subfamily Solanoideae, with the exceptions of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotianoideae) and petunia (Petunia × hybrida, Petunioideae).

Many of the Solanaceae, such as tobacco and petunia, are used as model organisms in the investigation of fundamental biological questions at the cellular, molecular, and genetic levels.
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Белена черная (Hyoscyamus niger)

Белена черная (Hyoscyamus niger)

148 images

Бругмансия ароматная (Brugmansia suaveolens)

Бругмансия ароматная (Brugmansia suaveolens)

32 images

Бругмансия древесная (Brugmansia arborea)

Бругмансия древесная (Brugmansia arborea)

47 images

Бругмансия золотистая (Brugmansia aurea)

Бругмансия золотистая (Brugmansia aurea)

3 images

Бругмансия разноцветная (Brugmancia versicolor)

Бругмансия разноцветная (Brugmancia versicolor)

3 images

Дереза обыкновенная, берберов (Lycium barbarum)

Дереза обыкновенная, берберов (Lycium barbarum)

5 images

Дурман индейский (Datura inoxia)

Дурман индейский (Datura inoxia)

59 images

Дурман индийский (Datura metel)

Дурман индийский (Datura metel)

7 images

Дурман обыкновенный (Datura stramonium)

Дурман обыкновенный (Datura stramonium)

185 images

Жуанулоя мексиканская (Juanulloa mexicana)

Жуанулоя мексиканская (Juanulloa mexicana)

5 images

Калибрахоа x гибридная белая форма (Calibrachoa x hybrida f. alba)

Калибрахоа x гибридная белая форма (Calibrachoa x hybrida f. alba)

3 images

Красавка обыкновенная (Atropa bella-donna)

Красавка обыкновенная (Atropa bella-donna)

169 images

Мандрагора лекарственная (Mandragora officinarum)

Мандрагора лекарственная (Mandragora officinarum)

93 images

Никандра физалисовидная (Nicandra physaloides)

Никандра физалисовидная (Nicandra physaloides)

29 images

Паслён 1 (Solanum sp.)

Паслён 1 (Solanum sp.)

4 images

Паслён 2 (Solanum sp.)

Паслён 2 (Solanum sp.)

4 images

Паслён 3 (Solanum sp.)

Паслён 3 (Solanum sp.)

5 images

Паслён 4 (Solanum sp.)

Паслён 4 (Solanum sp.)

2 images

Паслён клубненосный (Solanum tuberosum)

Паслён клубненосный (Solanum tuberosum)

12 images

Паслён клубненосный белая форма (Solanum tuberosum f. alba)

Паслён клубненосный белая форма (Solanum tuberosum f. alba)

3 images

Паслён ложноперечный (Solanum pseudocapsicum)

Паслён ложноперечный (Solanum pseudocapsicum)

10 images

Паслён сладко-горький (Solanum dulcamara)

Паслён сладко-горький (Solanum dulcamara)

29 images

Паслён темноплодный (Solanum melongena)

Паслён темноплодный (Solanum melongena)

76 images

Паслён упоро (Solanum uporo)

Паслён упоро (Solanum uporo)

11 images

Паслен жёлтый (Solanum luteum)

6 images

Паслен черновишенный (Solanum melanocerasum)

6 images

Перец однолетний (Capsicum annuum)

83 images

Петуния 1 (Petunia sp.)

1 image

Петуния 2 (Petunia sp.)

2 images

Петуния 3 (Petunia sp.)

3 images

Петуния 4 (Petunia sp.)

1 image

Петуния гибридная (Petunia x hybrida)

26 images

Пузырница восточная (Physochlaina orientalis)

4 images

Сальпихроя душицелистная (Salpichroa origanifolia)

6 images

Схизантус x визетонский (Schizanthus x wisetonensis (S. pinnatus x S. grahamii))

4 images

Табак 1 (Nicotiana sp.)

1 image

Табак 2 (Nicotiana sp.)

14 images

Табак 3 (Nicotiana sp.)

3 images

Табак x госпожи Сандер (Nicotiana x sanderae (N. alata × N. forgetiana))

9 images

Табак деревенский (Nicotiana rustica)

34 images

Табак крылатый (Nicotiana alata)

31 images

Табак Лангсдорфа 'Лимонное Дерево' (Nicotiana langsdorffii 'Lemon Tree')

4 images

Табак лесной (Nicotiana sylvestris)

8 images

Табак метельчатый (Nicotiana paniculata)

11 images

Табак обыкновенный 'Маленький голландец' (Nicotiana tabacum 'Little Dutch')

50 images

Табак обыкновенный (Nicotiana tabacum)

17 images

Табак сизый, Табачное дерево (Nicotiana glauca)

8 images

Тамарилло, Цифомандра свекольная, Томатное дерево (Solanum betaceum)

4 images

Томат съедобный (Lycopersicon esculentum)

218 images

Физалис обыкновенный (Physalis alkekengi)

18 images

Физалис овощной, Томатилло (Physalis philadelphica)

9 images

Физалис пушистый (Physalis pubescens)

11 images

Цеструм дневной (Cestrum diurnum)

4 images

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